Ramparts and gates
Jan Černčický from Kácov built six-metre ramparts during the time of the foundation of the city on the massive marlstone cliffs on the Metuje River. The ramparts were reinforced approximately every thirty to forty metres by five semi-cylindrical and cylindrical bastions furnished with loopholes.
The entrance to the city was guarded by two gates, the Krajská Gate (demolished in 1874), and the Horská Gate (demolished in 1905).
These were situated in the direction of the old road, and today's road runs along this same path as well.